Dubai Ports Authority (A)
The Dubai Ports Authority (DPA) wishes to digitize many of the documents it shares with its external partners, including shipping lines and agents, merchants, and the country's customs authority. DPA also wishes to automate the many document transmissions related to ships' manifests. At the time of the case, the worldwide shipping industry is characterized by low levels of automation, a proliferation of incompatible data standards, and many independent players. All of these factors complicate digitization efforts. DPA decides to write its manifest documentation system itself and must make several other decisions related to system implementation and rollout.