Competing with Dragons: Amazon in China
Amazon entered China in 2004 by acquiring Joyo, a local e-retailer, and rebranding it as Amazon China, implementing the technology and practices that had worked in the U.S. Unlike its local competitors, Amazon China's organizational culture focused on the use of technology while downplaying the importance of marketing. Amazon's global standardization strategy thus made Amazon China less responsive to Chinese customers' online shopping habits and less flexible in dealing with suppliers and third-party sellers on its marketplace platform. In the first decade following its entry, Amazon China saw its market share of China's expanding e-commerce market shrink dramatically. In 2012, it undertook strategic transformations focused on cross-border e-commerce and introduced Amazon's other core businesses, including Kindle devices and AWS, to China. Adapted to the local market, Amazon's Kindle was a success. Both the e-book publishing and cloud computing (AWS) sectors are highly regulated in China and Amazon's efforts to replicate its U.S. business in China faced big challenges.