European Airline Industry, 1993 - 2009: Flying into Turbulence (A)
This case illustrates the evolving structure of the airline industry in Europe and the competitive determinants in the industry. This case initially outlines the context of the airline industry prior to deregulation. The industry's evolution subsequent to deregulation is then examined. We examine the competition between incumbents and new entrants and the arrival of low-cost airlines into the industry structure. The case illustrates incumbents' differing responses to the change in the industry's structure and the evolvement of new customer segments. The case further illustrates the differing competitive requirements as the structure changes in the period between 1993 to 2000 and beyond, and the incumbents' and entrants' choices as the basis of competition changes in the industry. Incumbents' and entrants' competitive positioning and the changes in positioning are also examined. Finally, the case also illustrates the possible new business models and their link to competitive positioning and industry structure. This case is placed in the years 1993 to 2000 when the deregulation unfolded in the industry bringing in significant and substantial changes to the industry's structure.