Initial Public Offerings
This note provides an overview of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) and addresses the methods used to value companies undergoing an IPO. It begins with a brief introduction to IPOs and the rationale behind going public, followed by an analysis of IPOs from the investor's perspective. Next, the IPO process is outlined and explained, including the underwriter choice, selling procedure, pricing and activities in the aftermarket. Lastly, the note examines the valuation methodology used in the pricing stage of IPOs. This includes the discounted cash flow method, the use of market multiples of comparable firms, as well as other situational considerations when determining the initial price per share range and final offering price.